Overview and Environmental
Overview and Environmental Hazards
A professional home inspection gives you an independent, unbiased view of any existing problems along with recommendations for follow up evaluation by the appropriate tradesman, technician or contractor associated with the defect, so that the solutions can be identified as expeditiously as possible, so that you will have all the facts you need to make a sound, informed decision on your purchase.
Depending on the size and condition of the home, a thorough home inspection usually will take no more than three or four hours, for a 4000 square foot or less sized home, and usually between an hour and a half and three hours for a 1200 to 3000 square foot home. Ideally, you will accompany your inspector during the consultation, so that you will have visual reinforcement of your written report.
We take our inspection reports seriously. Every inspection is a complete and thorough analysis of all the major systems and components in the home. The report includes a clear description of what we've found with any problem areas noted, so you can easily identify them. I also provide a free telephone consultation after your inspection.
A thorough home inspection will include the following:
- Roof (shingles, flashings, chimneys, vents, trim and gutters, drip edges, skylights, downspouts, and other visible roof related items such as algae and mold staining)
- Plumbing and Fixtures (water pressure, leaks, visible signs of water damage, water distribution system, hose bibs, sinks and faucets, bath/showers and toilets, sanitary piping system, and other plumbing system components including water potability and quality)
- Heating and Cooling Systems (boilers, furnace, air handlers, heat pumps, air cleaning appliances and parts, ductwork, air conditioning equipment and other related HVAC components)
- Basements, Crawl Spaces, and Foundation (drainage, insulation, ventilation, water intrusion, moisture, visible evidence of mold suspect stains, vapor barriers, utility attachment, framing items, floors, walls, and columns)
- Decks and Porches
- Overall Site Elevations of the Building
- Attics (access method and condition, insulation, ventilation, rafters, joists and collar ties, trusses, wiring attachments, exhaust fan outlet locations, moisture and mold problems and other visible related items)
- Interior (floors, ceilings, walls, stairs, handrails, balusters, surface finishes, cabinets, shelving, smoke detectors, carbon monoxide detectors, other safety-related items, and other visible interior-related components)
- Electrical Systems (service entry cables and clearances, service panels, switches and outlets, receptacles, visible wiring and junction boxes, grounding system, and other related electrical components)
- Exterior (grading, drainage, moisture barriers, siding materials and trim, attachments, windows, doors, sashes and lintels, vents, entryways, and other visible exterior related components)
My job as your professional home inspector is to alert you, to the extent possible, to potential environmental hazards in your current or potential house. This is a non-invasive visual inspection of the property. While we may be able to alert you to possible problems, our basic inspections are no substitutes for specialized contaminant testing.
Asbestos is a mineral fiber that can be positively identified only with a special type of microscope. There are several types of asbestos fibers. In the past, asbestos was added to many products to strengthen them and provide fire resistance and heat insulation. If disturbed, asbestos material may release asbestos fibers, which can be inhaled into the lungs. Asbestos material that crumbles easily if handled or which has been scraped, sawed, or sanded into a powder is more likely to create a health hazard. Breathing high levels of asbestos fibers can lead to an increased risk of lung cancer, mesothelioma (cancer of lining of chest and abdominal cavity), and asbestosis (lungs scarred with the tissue). Houses built between 1930 and 1950 may have asbestos insulation. Most of today’s products do not contain asbestos. If asbestos material is more than slightly damaged or you plan changes that might disturb it, you are required to hire a professional for repair and removal. Before home remodeling, find out if asbestos is present. Contact the State of CT Department of consumer protection Asbestos office for more information.
Excerpts from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency “Asbestos and Vermiculite”.
Excerpts from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency “Asbestos and Vermiculite”.
Lead is a highly toxic metal used for many years in products in and around homes. Lead’s adverse health effects range from behavioral problems and learning disabilities to seizures and death. Because their bodies are growing quickly, children age 6 and under are at greatest risk. Primary sources of lead exposure for children are deteriorating lead-based paint, lead-contaminated dust, and lead-contaminated residential soil. Lead might be present in any home built up until the 1940s. Rarely found in source water, lead can enter tap water through corrosion of plumbing materials. Homes built before 1986 are more likely to have lead pipes, joints, and solder. New homes are also at risk: even legally “lead-free” pipes can contain up to 8 percent lead and leave significant amounts of lead in the water for the first several months after installation. Since the 1980s, EPA and its federal partners have banned or limited lead used in consumer products, including residential paint. Federal regulations limiting the amount of lead in paint sold for residential use started in 1978. If your property was built before 1978 or you are considering remodeling, renovating, or repair, you may wish to think about lead inspection. Water quality can be compromised by such other trace elements as iron, excess acidity, manganese, calcium, magnesium, mineral salts, hydrogen sulphide, selenium, chromium, arsenic, mercury, and cadmium. For more information contact the State of CT Department of Health Services Lead Office.
Excerpts from U.S. Department of Environmental Protection, “Lead in Paint, Dust, and Soil”.
Mold (fungi) is present everywhere, indoors and outdoors. There are more than 100,000 species of mold, at least 1,000 of which are common in America. Species of Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Aspergillus are some of the most commonly found species. Mold most likely grows in bathrooms, basements, and anywhere else where there is dampness or water. Many types of mold routinely encountered aren’t hazardous to healthy individuals. Too much exposure to mold may cause a worsening of such conditions as asthma, hay fever, or other allergies. Fevers and breathing problems in a vulnerable individual are possible but unusual. When moldy material becomes damaged or disturbed, spores, which are reproductive bodies similar to seeds, can be released into the air. Exposure can occur if people inhale the spores, directly handle moldy material, or accidentally ingest the spores. Since all molds need water to grow, mold can grow almost anywhere where there is high humidity, dampness, or water damage. Most often molds are confined to areas near the water source. Removing the source of moisture through repairs or dehumidification is crucial in preventing mold growth. Correcting underlying water damage and cleaning the affected area is the best way to treat mold. If mold contamination is extensive, a professional abatement company may be needed.
Excerpts from The New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene, Environmental & Occupational Disease Epidemiology, “Facts About Mold”.
Radon is a radioactive gaseous element produced in the disintegration of radium, a radioactive metallic element. It cannot be detected by the senses and can be confirmed only by sophisticated instruments and laboratory tests. The gas enters a house through pores and cracks in the concrete or through floorboards of poorly ventilated crawlspaces, especially when wet ground allows the gas to escape easily through the soil and disperse in the atmosphere. Radon is a lung carcinogen: the National Academy of Sciences estimates radon causes some 15,000 to 22,000 lung cancer deaths annually. The U.S. Surgeon General and the EPA recommend all houses be tested for radon. Houses with high radon levels can be fixed.
Excerpts from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Indoor Radon”.
Termites, which play a positive role in recycling wood and plant material, become a problem when they consume structural lumber. Every year thousands of U.S. housing units require termite treatment. These pests cause serious damage to wooden structures and posts and can also attack stored food, household furniture, and books. Successful termite management requires special skills, including a working knowledge of building construction and an understanding of termite biology and identification. In most cases, it is advisable to hire a professional pest control company for the inspection and control problem.
Wood-boring beetle larvae feed on wood and wood products. Adults of some species bore holes into plaster, plastic, and soft metals. Many species cause problems when emerging from wood in newly constructed buildings because they leave small circular or oval exit holes in the wood. To avoid these problems, infested wood must be kiln-dried before being used for lumber. The species Deathwatch Beetles is primarily found in soft woods (girder, beams, foundation timbers, some types of furniture, with some species attacking books). False Powder post female beetles bore a tunnel, or egg gallery, into wood or other materials, then deposit eggs in pores or cracks within the tunnel. Adults of some species bore through such soft metal as lead and silver, as well as plaster and other non-wood materials. Affected structural wood should be removed and replaced whenever possible.
Wood Wasps and Horntails. Wood wasp damage in buildings is likely to be more cosmetic than structurally weakening. Emerging wood wasps can chew through any substance: wallboard or plaster walls, hardwood floors, carpeting, linoleum, non-ceramic floor tiles, and other interior surfaces.
Carpenter Ants. Several species can damage wood in building and other structures. Though ants don’t eat wood, they bore into it to make their nests, sometimes causing serious structural damage. Also, they nest in hollow doors, cracks and crevices, furniture, wall voids, and termite galleries. New building infestation occurs when land cleaning in the area disturbs existing native colonies.
Excerpts from University of California Agriculture & Natural Resources, UCIPMOnline, “Statewide Pest Management Program”.